Black and Blue: Healing & the Scars of Broken Trust

 “I am not poison, no I am not poison, just a boy from the hood that…

Got my hands in the air in despair don’t shoot, I just wanna do good.”     

                                                                                                                   -Jay Z “Spiritual”

In Our Feelings

During the last few weeks we as a nation in the U.S. have been gripped by shocking police-involved deaths brought to us through our televisions, our computer screens, our tablets, and our phones. Most notably, have been the deaths of Alton Sterling, Philando Castile, and Dallas police officers Lorne Ahrens, Michael Krol, Michael Smith, Brent Thompson, and Patrick Zamarripa. Amid the shock, fear, anger, and utter sadness generated from these events, have been a range of suggestions for how to cope. In this space, I argue that we must focus on coping to thrive as a society for the long-term, and not just to survive for the moment.

A recent article from the Los Angeles Daily news cited researchers and mental health experts that recommend taking a break from media to feel better and protect our mental health. “Just turn off the TV” is the recommendation, based on research pointing out the risks associated with media overexposure, including stress, anxiety, and feelings of helplessness.

AdobeStock_85075525 (1)

At an extreme, overexposure has the potential to trigger Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Another recommendation is to connect with others to share concerns and sadness. They suggest that these strategies can act as “a magic pill” to help people to feel better, quell their anxieties, and help with mood instability.

However, we are no longer in a situation to unplug, tune out, and distract ourselves to feel better. In fact, that is the problem. It has been too easy to go back to the status quo after being confronted with these videos of policing tactics gone awry and ending in more Black and Brown dehumanization and death. Instead, we must tune in, watch these events, listen to these voices, take stock of our relationships and roles, and act. We must recognize the reality of what is, and what needs to be different. These events happened. More importantly, these events happen. Most importantly, these events have to stop.

Depressed girl with bad make-up concept

Jay Z’s recently released “Spiritual” – a song of grief, coping, family, and solidarity around policing and the Black community. It was actually written more than one year ago in the wake of the Mike Brown death. Despite pressure to release it earlier, he felt, “this issue will always be relevant.”

Trust: Me, You, Us

President Obama convened a Taskforce on 21st Century Policing in 2014 amid the many events exposing significant tension between law enforcement and the communities they served. The first of the six pillars of action recommended in their Final Report is Building Trust and Legitimacy. Ultimately, this is where we must roll up our sleeves and begin the work toward better.

trust circle hand drawn on whiteboard

We have to collectively improve how we show up in the world, how we consider the realities of others, and how we relate to one another –in positive and supportive ways- on a daily basis. We have to build trust. We must identify ways to be empowered as groups and communities without exploiting and taking advantage of other groups or communities. If there is going to be compassion and forgiveness in an effort to build bridges of trust, it must be alongside a commitment to a future where all people are healthy, well, treated equitably, and in this case alive regardless of racial, ethnic, social, or economic status. Forgiveness does not condone prior behavior, but it allows room to work toward unity, and an accountable mission for better. A major step toward this reality is to honor and validate each other’s stories in the quest toward re-establishing trust.

Trust is a heavy bond. Think about the significance of a friend or family member that has violated your trust. Think about how your relationship with this person changed after trust was violated, and how your relationship evolved over time.

Philando’s Story: Four

Close up Barrel Snub Nose Revolver Gun Weapon pointed at You

The first time I watched the video of the shooting of Philando Castile, I couldn’t help but notice the agony he was in, the obvious pain, and that nobody was helping him. In fact, most of the time, the gun of the officer was still focused and pointing at Castile and Diamond Reynolds, his girlfriend.

The second time I watched the video, I was drawn to the incredible calm of Ms. Reynolds, narrating the scene while still visibly shaken and confused as to how this could be happening. It was similar to the calm of the eye of a hurricane with this incredible madness swirling around her. She was documenting the events while at the same time pleading for clarity, some answers, some understanding from the officers. All of this while Mr. Castile lay bleeding, actually lay dying, next to her. I couldn’t do it. Well actually I have no idea of what I would do in that situation. I think I would be a certain way, but actually I do not know. Most of us do not.

Still, the gun focused and pointed.

The third time I watched the video, I noticed something new. The harsh tones of multiple officers continued, telling her to exit the vehicle and get on her knees -with zero compassion, zero empathy, zero understanding. However, I also heard, “Where’s my daughter?” Wait, What?! A little girl was in the backseat watching this happen! The officers continued, “Keep walking. Get on the ground.” And that quickly, Diamond was now in handcuffs.

“It’s okay mommy… It’s okay I’m right here with you.”

These words from her Ms. Reynolds’ four year old daughter echo with the deafening boom of a cannon. Now, while in the back of the police car with her mother handcuffed, after witnessing police shoot Mr. Castile, this young girl is trying to console her mother. She is the only one, because it is clear that nobody else is. And no one is consoling her.

One final vivid point resonated during the fourth time I watched the video. During all of the interactions, throughout the arrest, there was little overt expression of humanity. There was no immediate first aid, not a single word of remorse or concern, and no visible desire to help Mr. Castile, Ms. Reynolds, or her daughter. Each was treated only as a criminal. There was no apparent regard for the child present or what that child might need amid a traumatic experience like this. Evidence is strong about the compounding influence of traumatic childhood experiences like these.


Suspended Disbelief

I have grown accustomed to the unbelievable happening to Black and Brown people at the hand of law enforcement. I have also developed a cynicism that there will likely not be an indictment. Although, new research suggests that in 2016 the tide maybe shifting toward greater officer accountability for questionable shootings. The highest profile cases have yet to support this trend. When I started writing my book, “The Healing Power of Hip Hop” in 2014, the national spotlight was focused on the Mike Brown case. By the time I finished in late 2015, there was an entire list of names and cases that followed suit with the predictably outrageous use-of-force, death, protest, and non-indictment pattern. The list of reasons why the encounters took place in the first place are so mundane that it is almost comical. The victims’ names are now household names… Brown, Garner, Rice, Bland [the one year anniversary of Bland’s death was July 13, 2016], and now Sterling and Castile and so many more. And this is the crux of the issue.

For many in Black and Brown communities, there is a lack of trust that anything will happen to officers that use the most vicious examples of excessive force. This is often coupled with fear, and anger, that the most mundane encounter (read: any encounter) can escalate to the most extreme level regardless of how one acts. It is perceived as an officer-driven interaction. This is a bias, the belief that law enforcement will not give you the same benefit of the doubt as the average citizen, and that you cannot assume you will receive treatment with the most basic levels of human decency. In other words, your basic level of treatment is highly variable.

At the same time, law enforcement is also often fearful in these encounters. Biases exist on both sides, with one key difference. Law enforcement has the support of the rest of the force, their superiors, their union, public opinion, and ultimately the law, to protect, support, and defend them. Citizens have support of… the law, and… the police, to protect, support, and defend them. And there’s the rub. Trust has been violated. So who’s left until trust is re-established? Each other.

Doubt barrier or sign for skepticism, uncertainty, confusion or lack of confidence

Faces of Death

So what about those individuals that still have misconceptions about and a hard time grasping why so many organize and advocate with each other under the banner of #BlackLivesMatter for dignity, justice, and respect? What about the people that do not understand the urgency with which people want to stop the killing of people that look like them by people charged with protecting them? Would watching the video four times help them understand the pain, the utter distrust, and the trauma of watching the people paid to protect you routinely violate people that look like you, like your family, and like your friends – without penalty and without remorse? Would they better understand the cumulative effect of these deadly encounters, where an ordinary citizen dies at the hands of people paid to protect and serve you… on video for all to see?

Maybe they will understand. Or, maybe not.

Scholarly debate exists about whether excessive force is actually as disproportionate as it seems toward Blacks. For example, research from Cody Ross showing substantial bias at the county level, especially in large metro areas with large Black populations and significant income disparities. Joseph Cesario’s work disputes this suggesting that more localized data indicates little difference between Black and White citizens being shot by police officers once criminality is taken into account. In the court of public opinion the debate is over who is more at fault, the police, or the Black community.

Bias and Humanity

Research on implicit bias show that people even act in ways that contradict their best interests due to implicit racial bias. Often, implicit biases are so pervasive that without focused energy they influence behaviors. For example, simple exposure to black male faces has shown to influence decision-making to perceive harm/fear. This even occurs for exposure to little boys faces as young as five years old. It puts Tamir Rice’s death in perspective (remember, 2 seconds?). Research shows that individuals that fear Black people are more likely to shoot them over other groups. The likelihood is even greater if they have low empathy or if they tend to dehumanize them.

But, there is hope with research that suggests that with greater understanding, shared experiences, and deliberate effort we can chip away at some of these biases. And new research also highlights that when we want to be better, we can be.  Awareness and concern about bias, and the desire to be better as a person has shown to reduce implicit bias. We must continue to allow ourselves to empathize with and humanize the lived experiences of others, especially those we are not as familiar with culturally, and may even have biases against.

Just Us

While the effort to avoid excess stress and trauma must be accounted for, it is not only the exposure to this unique form of media violence that should be of concern. More distressing and potentially traumatizing is the lack of systemic justice and accountability for Black humanity. It has entrenched a belief that police tactics reinforce the idea that Black and Brown lives have little value in the eyes of the broader public; that it is okay to dehumanize men, women, and children with impunity.

Despite the current headlines, when it comes to equity and justice, excessive force by police is actually only one of the many concerns about bias and disparity throughout the overall criminal justice system, from encounter to sentencing. Further, equity and justice in the criminal justice system is only one of the many dimensions of equity and justice being pursued on a daily basis in communities around the United States. It falls alongside educational justice, economic justice, racial justice, health justice, environmental justice, immigration rights, and LGBTQ rights. All of these issue areas are places that you can make a difference. Especially in an election cycle that may fuel ideological tensions, please make your voice heard.

Not Business as Usual

Again, the recommendation by some is to “just turn off the TV.” But it is not that simple. It is not just about “feeling better” in the moment. It is about investing in healthy coping strategies that directly confront problematic social realities. It is about hiring policies, training policies, funding policies, evaluation policies, oversight policies, and ultimately our willingness to invest in a new compact between law enforcement and Black and Brown communities. Invest in the commitment for every citizen to be free, treated equitably, and treated with humanity.

The White House Task Force on 21st Century Policing has also provided a user friendly outline of “Things We Can Do” on top of their report recommendations to help each of us can get involved… government, law enforcement, and community members. We must help to pressure our criminal justice system so that this is the last unjust murder or use of excessive force. The ability to move forward will be about forgiveness and compassion, but in partnership with an explicit declaration of value for Black and Brown lives, and a commitment to normalizing equity and justice throughout the criminal justice system, from encounter to sentencing. That is how trust is established.

Hello I Am Accountable words on a name tag sticker showing you accept responsibility or blame for a problem

  • It is also about each of us becoming better as individuals to ensure we’re not complicit in the circumstances (and system) generating these traumatic community encounters. We are each accountable.
  • It is about determining how the various groups we’re a part contribute to the culture of these interactions, to the culture of our community spaces, and whether these group values and norms are a part of the problem or the solution.
  • We must be critical of ourselves, the groups we identify with, and our role in these groups.
  • Ultimately, we are each responsible for determining which of the many areas of change that we can help improve, and then acting.

That includes me. That includes entertainers like Beyoncé and friends… That includes athletes like LeBron James and friends at the 2016 ESPYS… That includes you.

Keep the TV on. Instead of turning it off, moving on with business as usual, and forgetting, let us help improve our criminal justice system by remembering, respecting, and acting. And then you can help with some of the other equity and justice issue areas after that.

Remember… Listen (and Watch). Think. Act.


Raphael Travis is Executive Director of FlowStory, PLLC, providing resources and consultation with youth-serving professionals on how to promote positive youth development and health, especially through music. He is also an Associate Professor at Texas State University in the School of Social Work His research, practice and consultancy work focuses on positive youth development over the life-course, adolescent resilience and youth civic engagement. He also investigates the role of music in people’s lives, especially Hip-Hop culture as a source of well-being.
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Hip Hop Speaks on Stress, Trauma and PTSD

Amongst the Masses But All Alone

Raphael Travis Jr. and Alhaji Jalloh

The connection between mind, body and environment is captured well in the most recent studio album by Pharoahe Monch titled PTSD: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Through his legendary wordplay he reflects on the depths of his own depressive episodes, along with the stressful realities of a military veteran and being Black in the United States. Ultimately he helps us recognize that we cannot stand on the sidelines. Note: an abbreviated version of this entry can be found at

PTSD on Old Typewriter's Keys.

May is Mental Health month in the US, and May 4th was National Mental Health and Dignity Day. This year’s theme, “Mind Your Health” reminds us to focus our energy on keeping a healthy mind as much as a healthy body.

Pharoahe Monch’s album PTSD a refreshing addition in the world of Hip Hop. It offers hope amidst emotional suffering, freedom despite oppression, connection after alienation, and some level of transparency around mental health in African American communities. To Monch, PTSD is as much a challenge as it is an opportunity. He follows a rich legacy of emcees that put pen to paper on mental health, coping, resilience and growth, like Guru of Gang Starr on “Moment of Truth”:

The situation that I’m facing, is mad amazing

To think such problems can arise from minor confrontations

Now I’m contemplating in my bedroom pacing

Dark clouds over my head, my heart’s racing

Suicide? Nah, I’m not a foolish guy

Don’t even feel like drinking, or even getting high

Because all that’s going to do really, is accelerate

The anxieties that I wish I could alleviate

But wait, I’ve been through a whole lot of other sh*t, before

So I ought to be able, to withstand some more.

in debt blues 3

We can learn from the success stories. We can learn from people like Monch who on his title track “Post Traumatic Stress Disorder” is brave enough to share his experiences. We can learn from those that found supportive spaces, and those that have seen brighter days.

Video: P.T.S.D. Live

Authentically True and Real

A challenge we face as society, is to recognize how serious the situation is for those struggling with stress and trauma without perpetuating stigma and bias (“pathologizing”). For example, the term “Hood Disease” was recently circulated in the media (and thankfully quickly put to rest) as another misguided buzzword to capture the world’s imagination about what happens to youth living in our nation’s low income communities. The issue is real, but framed all wrong.

Another recent story came from Kansas City, MO, shedding light on the continued misunderstanding of and isolation felt by veterans suffering from PTSD. An altercation occurred in which a veteran was ultimately killed by law enforcement officials. This particular veteran was on a long waiting list for a mental health appointment with the VA. This type of falling through the cracks in an environment of misunderstanding and complex needs is the reality for too many of our veterans.

Let’s not pretend that the physical, social, and economic environments of our poorest communities which put its residents at excess and ongoing risk for negative health outcomes is a disease. Let’s also not pretend that the social, political and economic environments that our young veterans return to is set up for a successful transition into civilian. Their challenges are not their problems. Their challenges are our challenges.

Instead, let us recognize the mental health hurdles many of our youth and young adults face every day with the focus and dignity that May 4th is meant to represent. The issues are real. Our youth and young adults deserve our respect and undivided attention. Even more so, it is not enough to just know and understand, we must act.

A clock without a minute hand. An hourglass without sand. Suspended within space and time. I walk a thin line. Amongst the masses all alone. A furnished house with no one home. I see through walls that’s hard to climb. I’m losing my mind. – Monch “Losing My Mind”

Past, Present and Future Trauma

Among youth 10-24, suicide is the third leading cause of death, with about 4600 deaths (CDC, 2014). However, 157,000 youth are seen yearly in emergency rooms from self-inflicted injuries. Every 65 minutes a military veteran commits suicide (i.e., 22 per day)(Department of Veterans Affairs, 2012).

Suicide is only one of the many sequelae of undesirable responses to stress and trauma. Stress can be helpful or harmful, harmful if there is not enough support to help. Trauma shatters your sense of security. PTSD is “an intense physical and emotional response to thoughts and reminders of the event that last long after the traumatic event” (CDC, 2014). The three broad and often overlapping symptoms of PTSD are: intrusive re-living (flashbacks and intense emotions), numbing and avoidance (of any reminder of trauma), and hyperarousal (on edge, easily provoked). It often co-occurs with depression, from distress and inability to cope.

Now flashbacks wake me abruptly when police pass by Lights flash, if i could only put the past on a flash drive I’d For peace of mind, install an external drive So I’d be more driven internally to survive. – Monch “Losing My Mind”

PTSD should be considered alongside Continuous Traumatic Stress (CTS) as a phenomena in many of our communities where the persistent, unpredictable and faceless nature of stress is coupled with an absence of sufficient support. Thoughts and behaviors center not on the past, but on how to stay safe now and in the future.

You gotta speak orangutan slang or pull capers The cops are the cheetahs and the trees are the skyscrapers… When you come through, you could get bumped too If you don’t got at least 4 to 5 gorillas amongst you. – Monch “Jungle”

The accumulation of neighborhood stressors, or traumatic events is also especially troublesome. This is associated with earlier trauma experiences, greater problems in functioning, a longer duration of problems, and a greater likelihood of co-occurring with depression and anxiety. These individuals are much more likely to have elevated hyperarousal, to experience partner violence, and physical assault. Cumulative stress and trauma also causes a literal “piling up” of stress and wear and tear on the body(“allostatic load”), which often leads to negative long-term health outcomes. In neighborhoods with the highest levels of cumulative risk, have adolescents with the highest levels of allostatic load.

#YesAllWomen, Girls and Trauma Studio Portrait Of Stressed Teenage Girl

There are many ways that women and girls experience stress and trauma differently than men and boys. The #YesAllWomen campaign spotlights one unique gendered aspect of stress and trauma. The phrase “the female fear” was coined by researchers Gordon and Riger (1989) to describe the consistent fear of victimization faced by many women, from street harassment on one end to rape at the other extreme. Reports range from 1 in 3 to 1 in 6 women will experience sexual assault in their lifetime. When zeroing in on African American women, we see high rates of trauma, increasing the chances of PTSD and co-occurring depression. These and other findings deserve our attention, especially for those of lower income, which poses a host of unique challenges.

  • First, women are more likely to have been victims of physical or sexual abuse/forced sexual contact as a child or adult.
  • Second, if alcohol or drugs are the coping strategy of choice then it may put them in situations that increase their risk for victimization; they can lose the capacity to give consent for sexual activity and may more easily socialize with a greater number of unfamiliar or predatory males (although, most often the victimized know their attacker). This does not make them “wrong” or deserving of victimization, it simply increases the risk.
  • Third, and too often related, within Hip Hop culture, is the consistent tension around the perpetuation of high risk misogynistic messages, especially among mainstream media outlets. As an example, Rick Ross was in the headlines over lyrics from the song U.O.E.N.O. (“you don’t even know [it]”) that can be interpreted as putting the drug “Molly” in a woman’s drink without her permission and then having sex with her without her consent, “Put Molly all in her champagne, she ain’t even know it. I took her home and I enjoyed that, she ain’t even know it.” This should not be misconstrued that this is only in Hip Hop culture.

These concerns are consistent with concerns about exploitive representations of women in any popularized capacity. Ultimately, it is the threat of victimization that is too familiar for those at risk, but minimized within popular discourse. The current #YesAllWomen Twitter campaign similarly has evolved as a collective act of solidarity against harassment and victimization of women and girls, and a culture that appears to be complicit in its normalization. The debate persists about who is most at fault, a few individuals at the extreme or society and our entire culture. Yet, what is not up for debate is that at their worst, the confluence of the above stressors and traumas create a web of harassment, victimization of many forms (e.g., rape, abuse, and sex-trafficking/prostitution), and addiction within which too many women and girls are caught.

Within Blog Spotlight: Misunderstood but Overstanding

Overstanding 3b Handle It

People handle stress and trauma differently. Some seek outside help. It may be a mental health professional such as a psychiatrist who may prescribe medicine, or a therapist who may offer talk therapy. In the African American community outside help is often accepted from a minister or the church community. Many do not seek outside help. For many families feelings of shame, guilt, and mistrust/fear are associated with mental health treatment.

My family customs were not accustomed to dealing with mental health It was more or less an issue for white families with wealth– Monch “Losing My Mind”

For some service members, it is considered a sign of weakness to seek mental health treatment. For others, they seek help that is unavailable, inefficient, or too slow. Too often, the suffering stays hidden.

That’s Why We Get High, Because You Never Know When We’re Gonna Go

Feeling alone, misunderstood, scared, angry or that you are going to snap at the slightest provocation lead many to substance use. These people use alcohol and other drugs to feel better. This type of self-medication helps people cope by, at least temporarily, lessening negative emotions, increasing positive emotions, and easing their ability to interact socially.

They told me to see the glass half full because some see it as half empty, I chose to see the glass twice the size it needed to be Smashed it against the wall in the kitchen, on the floor going through withdrawals I was itching She rescued me, my heroine to the end, but then she morphed into heroin in a syringe Around my bicep, I would tie a shoestring Tap! Five times to find a vein in there Squeeze 7 cc’s so I could see the seven seas And CC all my friends so they could see what I was seeing. – Monch “Broken Again”

Prepararsi uno spinello

At their best, in the short-term, substances help people regulate emotions, relax and take the edge off. Unfortunately, this also drastically increases the chances of new and different negative outcomes, such as addiction, strained relationships, neglect of responsibilities, injury, illness and major performance declines at school or work.

Music and Well Being

People have learned to use music, as a form of self-health “to get better.” This is no different for Hip Hop. This may occur as a casual/everyday listener, or as a creator of beats/lyrics/music. This can be especially valuable for people that are less willing to seek out third party help – unwilling to go to or continue with a counselor, and ambivalent about or unable to reach out to a parent, guardian or mentor. It can be a powerful alternative to more risky coping strategies as well.

I rediscovered my soul between the lines inside my journal Trapped within a Penn State of mind, Joe Paterno External gratification is not happiness eternal Interject, intellect, intercept, Internet. – Monch “Eht Dnarg Niosulli”

People, programs and organizations have picked up on this and have been working to provide outlets and opportunities for youth to express themselves and engage music in a meaningful way… such as Words, Beats and Life, Inc.Today’s Future Sound, and H.Y.P.E.

Hip Hop Speaks on Connection, Community, Citizenship

Hip Hop artists have also helped bring the conversation on stress and coping full circleoutside of the studio. Like Monch did in the studio on the track “TIME2”, other artists have shared their own experiences with stress and trauma, even on camera. Kid Cudi has been honest about feeling alone, lacking confidence and suicidality and what it is taking to maintain his own positive mental health. He aims for his music to help youth going through similar struggles. Kanye West has spoken on his own past suicidal ideation. DMX has been open about the trauma of childhood emotional neglect and an absence of maternal connection. LL Cool J has publicly explored his early life trauma and physical abuse. Frankly much of Hip Hop is filled with narratives of stress and trauma, but Monch couples this with the discussion of pathways to resilience [“PTSD”], growth [“D.R.E.A.M.”], and a greater sense of community and civic engagement [“STAND YOUR GROUND”].

The legendary MC Lyte, reflecting on her Foundation’s role in helping young girls and women, recognizes that active engagement is essential, “To protect our girls, women have to step in… It’s extremely important for me to be able to give back in that way because I am a woman and I was a young girl, and I know what it means to have positive images and I know what it means not to.”

Taking a stand for better community conditions, and challenging the stressful and traumatic stranglehold of community violence was the goal of Chicago emcee Chance the Rapper in his successful alignment with the #SaveChicago Twitter campaign over Memorial Day weekend. He joined forces with his father (connection), about Chicago a city he values and takes pride in (community), and was active in working toward better conditions (engaged citizenship). Chicago was homicide free for 42 hours.

What Can I Do? Remember… Listen, Think, Act!

Do not despair, breathe, fight For there is more life to live, believe More insight to share, retrieve Was the dead at the illustrious Exhale, hold, inhale, receive and live… Live… Live… Live… – Pharoahe Monch “P.T.S.D.”

One Step

The album PTSD, albeit one small step, provides opportunities for self-reflection and a broad societal discussion on stress and trauma. We as a society have the capacity to work in tandem with service veterans and other trauma survivors. By working together we promote belonging and inclusiveness, not alienation and stigmatization.

Be a Safe Space

Stop the Shame. Erase the Stigma. Be a Place of Trust, Safety and Dialogue. Do not pretend to know all the answers for how to help, but be honest when you see a need for professional help. Note the strategies that take into account the best of Hip Hop Culture like FlowStory’s interactive curricula and toolkits [sample Fatherhood Toolkit], and Beats Rhymes and Life’s Hip Hop Therapy. Think outside the box and create new pathways of expression and community like The Wilmington Trap Stars Exhibition spearheaded by Dr. Yasser Payne.

These opportunities for dialogue and expressive activities can help sort out truth and fiction, shed light on the nature of trauma (past or present), and develop safer and healthier ways to deal with the stress. Be a positive mentor and role model for youth. Provide youth-friendly spaces that offer breaks from the drama and the chance to be young and authentic. Create opportunities for growth and for community engagement for youth. You can be source for #SafeSpaces.

This blog’s guest contributor is Alhaji M. Jalloh, currently a graduate level Social Work student at Texas State University in San Marcos, Texas. Mr. Jalloh is also currently an Active Duty Air Force personnel with tours to Royal Air Force Lakenheath, United Kingdom, Bagram Air base, Afghanistan, Tinker AFB Oklahoma, Lackland Air Force Base, and Brooke Army Medical Center in Texas. He served in a variety of positions including Aerospace Ground Equipment technician, and most recently the position of Non-Commissioned Officer In-Charge of the Air Forces largest mental health clinic, providing services to 36,000 beneficiaries annually. 

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